Views:374 Author:Site Editor Publish Time: 2021-09-05 Origin:Site
It is universally acknowledged that standardization can make our lives easier. For example, if the cold working metal process is as standard as possible, it can save a lot of time and energy. However, it is a bit difficult to introduce it to systems that have a messy evolutionary history.
As is known to all, the pioneering 1882 Pearl Street station of Edison transmitted direct current at 110 volts, and the same voltage was used when the alternating current at 60 hertz took over in American homes. Later on, the standard was raised a bit to 120 V. Moreover, in order to accommodate heavy-duty appliances such as automotive stamping press and electric heating, it can also access 240 V.
Generally speaking, Japan has the lowest voltage (100 V). This is a legacy from the earliest days of electrification when Tokyo's utility purchased German 50-Hz generators and Osaka, which is 500 kilometers to the east, imported American 60-Hz machines as well as appliances such as cold heading fasteners. Eastern Honshu and Hokkaido island operate at 50 Hz. As you can see, different counties have different standards, whose influence will reflect on the equipment like silver contact rivets.
To be frank, the world is divided between the minority of countries with voltages centered on 120 V (110–130 V and 60 Hz) and the majority using 230 V (220–240 V and 50 Hz). North and Central America and most countries of South America combine single voltages between 110 and 130 V and the frequency of 60 Hz. Hence, Argentina and Chile (220/50), Peru (220/60), and Bolivia (230/50) are different from other countries. Africa, Asia (aside from Japan), Australia, and Europe have adapted to the higher voltages. For example, 220 V is used in Russia and Ethiopia while 230V is used in South Africa. Even 240 V is used in Brunei, Kenya, and Kuwait. Different voltage rates have a different impact on appliances such as stamped sheet metal panels.
The myriad kinds of plugs and sockets are even more perplexing as they reflect the enduring effect of early choices as well as the tungsten contact rivets. The International Electrotechnical Commission recognizes 15 different plug and socket types, with two combinations dominant. In North and Central America, as well as in Colombia, Ecuador, and Venezuela, there are just two standard plugs, A and B.
Plug A is with two flat parallel pins and plug B has two flat parallel pins and a round grounding pin just like an electrical silver co ntact point for the contactor. They are more likely to be used in Japan like precision metal stamping parts but the neutral pin on many American A plugs is wider than the live pin. Nonetheless, both pins have the same width so Japanese A plugs always can be suitable in the United States but the U.S. plugs may not be suitable in Japan.
The second dominant combination is usually used in Europe and in a number of Asian countries such as Vietnam and Korea. The C type has two round pins, and its use is confined to appliances requiring 2.5 amperes or less like small contact rivets. And the F plug has two 4.8-millimeter round pins and two ground clips on the side. Italy uses C, F, and L plug, with two round pins and a grounding pin in the middle. Switzerland has the J plug, with the same pins but in a triangular configuration. Of course, they also will choose suitable manufacturers such as metal stamping parts manufacturers according to their specific needs.